The Milkweed Family Species List

Biota of North America Program

Araujia Brot. - BLADDER-FLOWER

    sericifera Brot.

    Asclepias L. - MILKWEED

      albicans S. Wats.

      amplexicaulis Sm. Found in Texas and known locally as: Bluntleaf milkweed

      angustifolia Schweig.

      arenaria Torr. Found in Texas and known locally as: Sand milkweed

      asperula (Dcne.) Woods.

        ssp. asperula Found in Texas, local name unknown.

        ssp. capricornu (Woods.) Woods. Found in Texas and known locally as: Trailing milkweed Synonymy: Asclepias asperula var. decumbens (Nutt.) Shinners , Asclepias capricornu Woods. , Asclepias capricornu ssp. occidentalis Woods. , Asclepias decumbens (Nutt.) Dcne. , Asclepiodora decumbens (Nutt.) Gray

      brachystephana Engelm. ex Torr. Found in Texas and known locally as: Shortcrown milkweed

      californica Greene

        ssp. californica

        ssp. greenei Woods.

      cinerea Walt.

      connivens Baldw. Synonymy: Anantherix connivens (Baldw.) Feay

      cordifolia (Benth.) Jepson Synonymy: Gomphocarpus cordifolius Benth.

      cryptoceras S. Wats.

        ssp. cryptoceras

        ssp. davisii (Woods.) Woods. Synonymy: Asclepias cryptoceras var. davisii (Woods.) W.H. Baker , Asclepias davisii Woods.

      curassavica L. Found in Texas and known locally as: Veintiunilla

      curtissii Gray Synonymy: Asclepias aceratoides Nash , Oxypteryx curtissii (Gray) Small

      cutleri Woods.

      emoryi (Greene) Vail Found in Texas and known locally as: Emory milkweed

      engelmanniana Woods. Found in Texas and known locally as: Engelmann milkweed Synonymy: Acerates auriculata Engelm. ex Torr. , Asclepias auriculata (Engelm. ex Torr.) Holz.

      eriocarpa Benth. Synonymy: Asclepias eriocarpa var. microcarpa Munz & Johnston , Asclepias fremontii Torr. ex Gray

      erosa Torr.

      exaltata L. Synonymy: Asclepias bicknellii Vail , Asclepias phytolaccoides Pursh

      fascicularis Dcne. Synonymy: Asclepias mexicana auct. non Cav.

      feayi Chapman ex Gray Synonymy: Asclepiodella feayi (Chapman ex Gray) Small

      glaucescens Kunth Found in Texas (treated as Asclepias elata Benth. by Hatch et al, 1990) Synonymy: Asclepias elata Benth.

      hallii Gray

      hirtella (Pennell) Woods. Synonymy: Acerates hirtella Pennell , Asclepias longifolia var. hirtella (Pennell) Farmer & Bell

      humistrata Walt.

      hypoleuca (Gray) Woods.

      incarnata L. Found in Texas, local name unknown.

        ssp. incarnata

        ssp. pulchra (Ehrh. ex Willd.) Woods. Found in Texas (treated as Asclepias incarnata L. var. pulchra (Willd.) Pers. by Hatch et al, 1990) Synonymy: Asclepias incarnata var. neoscotica Fern. , Asclepias incarnata var. pulchra (Ehrh. ex Willd.) Pers. , Asclepias pulchra Ehrh. ex Willd.

      involucrata Engelm. ex Torr. Found in Texas, local name unknown.

      labriformis M.E. Jones

      lanceolata Walt. Found in Texas and known locally as: Lanceleaf milkweed Synonymy: Asclepias lanceolata var. paupercula (Michx.) Fern.

      lanuginosa Nutt. Synonymy: Acerates lanuginosa (Nutt.) Dcne. , Asclepias otarioides auct. non Fourn.

      latifolia (Torr.) Raf. Found in Texas and known locally as: Broadleaf milkweed

      lemmonii Gray

      linaria Cav.

      linearis Scheele Found in Texas and known locally as: Slim milkweed

      longifolia Michx. Found in Texas and known locally as: Longleaf milkweed Synonymy: Acerates delticola Small , Acerates floridana (Lam.) A.S. Hitchc. , Acerates longifolia (Michx.) Ell.

      macrosperma Eastw.

      macrotis Torr. Found in Texas and known locally as: Longhood milkweed

      meadii Torr. ex Gray Listed by the U.S. FWS as threatened - the FWS local name is Mead's milkweed and the FWS range is: U.S.A. (IA, IL, IN, KS, MO, WI).

      michauxii Dcne.

      nivea L.

      nummularia Torr. Found in Texas and known locally as: Roundleaf milkweed, yerba de cuervo

      nyctaginifolia Gray

      obovata Ell. Found in Texas, local name unknown. Synonymy: Asclepias viridiflora var. obovata (Ell.) Torr.

      oenotheroides Cham. & Schlecht. Found in Texas and known locally as: Hierba de zizotes Synonymy: Asclepias brevicornu Scheele

      ovalifolia Dcne.

      pedicellata Walt. Synonymy: Podostigma pedicellata (Walt.) Vail

      perennis Walt. Found in Texas and known locally as: Shore milkweed, thinleaf milkweed

      physocarpa (E. Mey.) Schlechter Synonymy: Gomphocarpus physocarpus E. Mey.

      prostrata Blackwell Found in Texas, local name unknown.

      pumila (Gray) Vail Found in Texas and known locally as: Plains milkweed, low milkweed

      purpurascens L. Found in Texas and known locally as: Purple milkweed

      quadrifolia Jacq.

      quinquedentata Gray Found in Texas and known locally as: Slimpod milkweed

      rubra L. Found in Texas and known locally as: Red milkweed Synonymy: Asclepias laurifolia Michx.

      rusbyi (Vail) Woods. Synonymy: Asclepias engelmanniana var. rusbyi (Vail) Kearney

      sanjuanensis Heil, J.M. Porter & Welsh

      scaposa Vail Found in Texas, local name unknown.

      solanoana Woods. Synonymy: Solanoa purpurascens (Gray) Greene

      speciosa Torr. Found in Texas and known locally as: Showy milkweed Synonymy: Asclepias giffordii Eastw.

      sperryi Woods. Found in Texas and known locally as: Sperry milkweed

      stenophylla Gray Found in Texas and known locally as: Slimleaf milkweed, narrowleaf milkweed Synonymy: Acerates angustifolia (Nutt.) Dcne. , Polyotus angustifolius Nutt.

      subulata Dcne.

      subverticillata (Gray) Vail Found in Texas and known locally as: Poison milkweed, horsetail milkweed Synonymy: Asclepias galioides auct. non Kunth

      sullivantii Engelm. ex Gray

      syriaca L. Synonymy: Asclepias intermedia Vail , Asclepias kansana Vail , Asclepias syriaca var. kansana (Vail) Palmer & Steyermark

      texana Heller Found in Texas and known locally as: Texas milkweed

      tomentosa Ell. Found in Texas, local name unknown.

      tuberosa L.

        ssp. interior Woods. Found in Texas, local name unknown. Synonymy: Asclepias tuberosa ssp. terminalis Woods. , Asclepias tuberosa var. interior (Woods.) Shinners

        ssp. rolfsii (Britt. ex Vail) Woods. Synonymy: Asclepias rolfsii Britt. ex Vail

        ssp. tuberosa

      uncialis Greene

        ssp. ruthiae (Maguire) Kartesz & Gandhi Synonymy: Asclepias eastwoodiana Barneby , Asclepias ruthiae Maguire , Asclepias uncialis var. ruthiae (Maguire) E. Sundell

        ssp. uncialis

      variegata L. Found in Texas and known locally as: White-flowered milkweed Synonymy: Biventraria variegata (L.) Small

      verticillata L. Found in Texas and known locally as: Whorled milkweed, eastern whorled milkweed

      vestita Hook. & Arn.

        ssp. parishii (Jepson) Woods. Synonymy: Asclepias vestita var. parishii Jepson

        ssp. vestita

      viridiflora Raf. Found in Texas and known locally as: Green antelopehorn Synonymy: Acerates viridiflora (Raf.) Pursh ex Eat. , Acerates viridiflora var. ivesii Britt. , Acerates viridiflora var. linearis Gray , Asclepias viridiflora var. lanceolata Torr. , Asclepias viridiflora var. linearis (Gray) Fern.

      viridis Walt. Found in Texas and known locally as: Antelopehorn Synonymy: Asclepiodora viridis (Walt.) Gray

      viridula Chapman

      welshii N.& P. Holmgren Listed by the U.S. FWS as threatened - the FWS local name is Welsh's milkweed and the FWS range is: U.S.A. (AZ, UT).

      Calotropis R. Br. - ROOSTERTREE

        gigantea (L.) Ait. f.

        procera (Ait.) Ait. f. Synonymy: Asclepias procera Ait.

        Cryptostegia R. Br. - RUBBERVINE

          grandiflora (Roxb. ex R. Br.) R. Br. Synonymy: Nerium grandiflorum Roxb. ex R. Br.

          madagascariensis Bojer ex Dcne.

          Cynanchum L. - SWALLOW-WORT

            anegadense (Britt.) Alain Synonymy: Metastelma anegadense Britt.

            angustifolium Pers. Found in Texas and known locally as: Marsh swallow-wort Synonymy: Cynanchum palustre (Pursh) Heller , Lyonia palustris (Pursh) Small

            arizonicum (Gray) Shinners Synonymy: Metastelma arizonicum Gray

            barbigerum (Scheele) Shinners Found in Texas and known locally as: Bearded swallow-wort, thicket threadvine Synonymy: Metastelma barbigerum Scheele

            blodgettii (Gray) Shinners Synonymy: Metastelma blodgettii Gray

            cheesmanii Woods. Synonymy: Metastelma decipiens Schlechter

            cubense (A. Rich.) Woods. Synonymy: Cynanchum peraffine Woods. , Gonolobus cubensis A. Rich. , Metalepis cubensis (A. Rich.) Griseb.

            ephedroides (Griseb.) Alain Synonymy: Metastelma ephedroides (Griseb.) Schlechter

            grisebachianum (Schlechter) Alain Synonymy: Metastelma decaisneanum Schlechter

            laeve (Michx.) Pers. Found in Texas and known locally as: Smooth swallow-wort, smooth anglepod, bluevine, sandvine Synonymy: Ampelamus albidus (Nutt.) Britt. , Gonolobus laevis Michx.

            ligulatum (Benth.) Woods. Synonymy: Cynanchum sinaloense (Brandeg.) Woods. , Mellichampia sinaloensis (Brandeg.) Kearney & Peebles

            lineare (Bello) Alain Synonymy: Metastelma lineare Bello

            louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi Synonymy: Cynanchum nigrum (L.) Pers., non Cav. , Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench

            maccartii Shinners Found in Texas and known locally as: Palmer swallow-wort Synonymy: Cynanchum palmeri (S. Wats.) Shinners, non Blake , Metastelma palmeri S. Wats.

            monense (Britt.) Alain Synonymy: Metastelma monense Britt.

            northropiae (Schlechter) Alain Synonymy: Epicion northropiae (Schlechter) Small

            parviflorum Sw. Synonymy: Metastelma parviflorum (Sw.) R. Br. ex J.A. Schultes

            pringlei (Gray) Henrickson Found in Texas, local name unknown. Synonymy: Cynanchum barbigerum var. breviflorum Shinners , Metastelma pringlei Gray

            racemosum (Jacq.) Jacq.

              var. unifarium (Scheele) E. Sundell Found in Texas, local name unknown. No Texas distribution data available Synonymy: Cynanchum palmeri (S. Wats.) Blake , Cynanchum unifarium (Scheele) Woods.

            rossicum (Kleopov) Borhidi Synonymy: Cynanchum medium auct. non R. Br. , Vincetoxicum medium auct. non (R. Br.) Dcne. , Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopov) Barbarich

            scoparium Nutt. Synonymy: Amphistelma scoparia (Nutt.) Small , Metastelma scoparium (Nutt.) Vail

            utahense (Engelm.) Woods. Synonymy: Astephanus utahensis Engelm.

            vincetoxicum (L.) Pers. Synonymy: Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik.

            wigginsii Shinners Synonymy: Basistelma angustifolia (Torr.) Bartlett, non Cynanchum angustifolium Pers.

            Gonolobus Michx. - ANGLEPOD

              stephanotrichus Griseb. Synonymy: Vincetoxicum stephanotrichum (Griseb.) Britt.

              Hoya R. Br. - PORCELAIN-FLOWER

                carnosa (L. f.) R. Br. Synonymy: Asclepias carnosa L. f.

                Marsdenia R. Br. - NETVINE

                  elliptica Dcne.

                  Matelea Aubl. - MILKVINE

                    alabamensis (Vail) Woods. Synonymy: Cyclodon alabamense (Vail) Small

                    arizonica (Gray) Shinners Synonymy: Gonolobus arizonicus (Gray) Woods. , Lachnostoma arizonicum Gray

                    balbisii (Dcne.) Woods. Synonymy: Pherotrichis balbisii (Dcne.) Gray

                    baldwyniana (Sweet) Woods. Synonymy: Gonolobus baldwynianus Sweet , Odontostephana baldwyniana (Sweet) Alexander , Vincetoxicum baldwynianum (Sweet) Britt.

                    biflora (Raf.) Woods. Found in Texas and known locally as: Twoflower milkvine Synonymy: Gonolobus biflorus Raf.

                    borinquensis Alain

                    brevicoronata (B.L. Robins.) Woods. Found in Texas, local name unknown. Synonymy: Gonolobus parviflorus var. brevicoronatus B.L. Robins.

                    carolinensis (Jacq.) Woods. Synonymy: Gonolobus carolinensis (Jacq.) R. Br. ex J.A. Schultes, non Nutt. , Odontostephana carolinensis (Jacq.) Alexander , Vincetoxicum carolinense (Jacq.) Britt. , Vincetoxicum hirsutum (Michx.) Britt.

                    cordifolia (Gray) Woods. Synonymy: Rothrockia cordifolia Gray

                    cynanchoides (Engelm.) Woods. Found in Texas, local name unknown. Synonymy: Gonolobus cynanchoides Engelm.

                    decipiens (Alexander) Woods. Found in Texas, local name unknown. Synonymy: Gonolobus decipiens (Alexander) Perry , Odontostephana decipiens Alexander

                    edwardsensis Correll Found in Texas and known locally as: Plateau milkvine

                    flavidula (Chapman) Woods. Synonymy: Odontostephana flavidula (Chapman) Alexander

                    floridana (Vail) Woods. Synonymy: Odontostephana floridana (Vail) Alexander

                    gonocarpos (Walt.) Shinners Found in Texas, local name unknown. Synonymy: Gonolobus gonocarpos (Walt.) Perry , Gonolobus suberosus auct. non (L.) R. Br. , Matelea suberosus auct. non (L.) Shinners , Vincetoxicum gonocarpos Walt. , Vincetoxicum suberosum auct. non (L.) Britt.

                    maritima (Jacq.) Woods. Synonymy: Cynanchum maritimum (Jacq.) Jacq. , Ibatia maritima (Jacq.) Dcne.

                    obliqua (Jacq.) Woods. Synonymy: Gonolobus obliquus (Jacq.) R. Br. ex J.A. Schultes , Gonolobus shortii Gray , Matelea shortii (Gray) Woods. , Odontostephana obliqua (Jacq.) Alexander , Odontostephana shortii (Gray) Alexander , Vincetoxicum obliquum (Jacq.) Britt. , Vincetoxicum shortii (Gray) Britt.

                    parviflora (Torr.) Woods. Found in Texas and known locally as: Littleleaf milkvine

                    parvifolia (Torr.) Woods. Found in Texas, local name unknown. Synonymy: Gonolobus californicus Jepson , Gonolobus parvifolius Torr.

                    pringlei (Gray) Woods. Synonymy: Himantostemma pringlei Gray

                    producta (Torr.) Woods. Found in Texas, local name unknown. Synonymy: Gonolobus productus Torr.

                    pubiflora (Dcne.) Woods. Synonymy: Edisonia pubiflora (Dcne.) Small

                    radiata Correll Found in Texas, local name unknown.

                    reticulata (Engelm. ex Gray) Woods. Found in Texas, local name unknown. Synonymy: Gonolobus reticulatus Engelm. ex Gray

                    sagittifolia (Gray) Woods. Found in Texas and known locally as: Arrowleaf milkvine Synonymy: Gonolobus sagittifolius Gray

                    sintenisii (Schlechter) Woods. Synonymy: Gonolobus sintenisii Schlechter , Vincetoxicum sintenisii (Schlechter) Britt.

                    texensis Correll Found in Texas, local name unknown.

                    variifolia (Schlechter) Woods. Synonymy: Gonolobus variifolius Schlechter , Vincetoxicum variifolium (Schlechter) Britt.

                    woodsonii Shinners

                    Metaplexis R. Br. - ROUGH-POTATO

                      japonica (Thunb.) Makino

                      Morrenia Lindl. - LATEXPLANT

                        odorata (Hook. & Arn.) Lindl.

                        Oxypetalum R. Br. - WHITEHEART

                          cordifolium (Vent.) Schlechter

                          Periploca L. - SILKVINE

                            graeca L. Found in Texas, local name unknown.

                            Sarcostemma R. Br. - TWINEVINE

                              clausum (Jacq.) J.A. Schultes Synonymy: Funastrum clausum (Jacq.) Schlechter

                              crispum Benth. Found in Texas and known locally as: Wavyleaf twinevine Synonymy: Funastrum crispum (Benth.) Schlechter , Sarcostemma lobata Waterfall

                              cynanchoides Dcne. Found in Texas, local name unknown.

                                ssp. cynanchoides Synonymy: Funastrum cynanchoides (Dcne.) Schlechter , Funastrum cynanchoides var. subtruncatum (B.L. Robins. & Fern.) J.F. Macbr.

                                ssp. hartwegii (Vail) R. Holm Found in Texas (treated as Sarcostemma cynanchoides Dcne. var. hartwegii (Vail) Shinners by Hatch et al, 1990) Synonymy: Funastrum heterophyllum (Engelm. ex Torr.) Standl. , Funastrum lineare (Dcne.) J.F. Macbr. , Philibertia heterophylla (Engelm. ex Torr.) Jepson , Sarcostemma cynanchoides var. hartwegii (Vail) Shinners

                              hirtellum (Gray) R. Holm Synonymy: Funastrum hirtellum (Gray) Schlechter , Philibertia hirtella (Gray) Parish

                              torreyi (Gray) Woods. Found in Texas and known locally as: Soft twinevine

                              Stapelia L. - ZULU-GIANT

                                gigantea N.E. Br. Synonymy: Stapelia nobilis N.E. Br.